In an interview with CBS's "60 Minutes" programme, he said he did not run for office to be "helping out a bunch of fat cat bankers on Wall Street".
Later on Monday, the president will meet some of the US's top bankers face-to-face.
He is scheduled to hold a meeting with executives from Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan Chase and Citigroup.
He is planning to tell them to step up lending to small businesses and get behind legislation to overhaul Wall Street regulations.
""They don't get it," Mr. Obama said. "They're still puzzled why is it that people are mad at the banks. Well, let's see. You guys are drawing down ten million, twenty million dollar bonuses after America went through the worst economic year that it's gone through in decades, and you guys caused the problem.[...]
Much of it was due to the irresponsibility of large financial institutions on Wall Street that gambled on risky loans and complex financial products seeking short-term profits and big bonuses with little regard for long-term consequences.[...]
What's really frustrating me right now is that you've got these same banks who benefited from taxpayer assistance who are fighting tooth and nail with their lobbyists up on Capitol Hill, fighting against financial regulatory control," he said.